Effect of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction on Response to Warfarin.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Candidates for chronic warfarin therapy often have co-morbid conditions, such as heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Previous reports have demonstrated an increased risk of over-anticoagulation due to reduced warfarin dose requirement in patients with decompensated heart failure. However, the influence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), defined as left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, on warfarin response has not been evaluated. Here, we assess the influence of LVSD on warfarin dose, anticoagulation control (percent time in target range), and risk of over-anticoagulation (international normalized ratio >4) and major hemorrhage. Of the 1,354 patients included in this prospective cohort study, 214 patients (16%) had LVSD. Patients with LVSD required 11% lower warfarin dose compared with those without LVSD (p <0.001) using multivariate linear regression analyses. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, patients with LVSD experienced similar levels of anticoagulation control (percent time in target range: 51% vs 53% p = 0.15), risk of over-anticoagulation (international normalized ratio >4; hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.25; p = 0.91), and risk of major hemorrhage (hazard ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.74; p = 0.66). Addition of LVSD variable in the model increased the variability explained from 35% to 36% for warfarin dose prediction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that patients with LVSD require lower doses of warfarin. Whether warfarin dosing algorithms incorporating LVSD in determining initial doses improves outcomes needs to be evaluated.
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    Keywords

  • Aged, Algorithms, Anticoagulants, Atrial Fibrillation, Cohort Studies, Comorbidity, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Dosage Calculations, Female, Heart Failure, Hemorrhage, Humans, International Normalized Ratio, Ischemic Attack, Transient, Linear Models, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Myocardial Infarction, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Stroke, Stroke Volume, Venous Thromboembolism, Ventricular Dysfunction, Left, Ventricular Function, Left, Warfarin
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ather S; Shendre A; Beasley TM; Brown T; Hill CE; Prabhu SD; Limdi NA
  • Start Page

  • 232
  • End Page

  • 236
  • Volume

  • 118
  • Issue

  • 2