Calorie restriction in overweight older adults: Do benefits exceed potential risks?

Academic Article

Abstract

  • The evidence regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults has remained equivocal for more than a decade. The older adult population is the fastest growing segment of the US population and a greater proportion of them are entering old age obese. These older adults require treatments based on solid evidence. Therefore the purpose of this review is three-fold: 1) to provide a more current status of the knowledge regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults, 2) to determine what benefits and/or risks calorie restriction adds to exercise interventions in obese older adults, and 3) to consider not only outcomes related to changes in body composition, bone health, cardiometabolic disease risk, markers of inflammation, and physical function, but, also patient-centered outcomes that evaluate changes in cognitive status, quality of life, out-of-pocket costs, and mortality. Seven randomized controlled trials were identified that examined calorie restriction while controlling for exercise intervention effects. Overall, the studies found that calorie restriction combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Evidence was mixed regarding other outcomes. The risk-benefit ratio regarding calorie restriction in older adults remains uncertain. Greater long-term follow-up is necessary, and complementary effectiveness studies are needed to identify strategies currently used by obese older adults in community settings.
  • Published In

    Keywords

  • Aerobic exercise, Calorie intake, Narrative review, Older adults, Aged, Body Composition, Caloric Restriction, Exercise Therapy, Female, Health Status, Healthy Lifestyle, Humans, Male, Obesity, Overweight, Quality of Life, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors, Weight Loss
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Locher JL; Goldsby TU; Goss AM; Kilgore ML; Gower B; Ard JD
  • Start Page

  • 4
  • End Page

  • 13
  • Volume

  • 86