© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: To investigate associations of a oxidative balance score (OBS) with blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and biomarkers of inflammation (serum C-reactive protein [CRP], albumin and venous total white blood cell [WBC] counts) among 19,825 participants in a nationwide study. Methods: Using cross-sectional data 14 dietary and lifestyle components were incorporated into the OBS and the resulting score (range 3-26) was then divided into five equal intervals. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal biomarker levels and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Results: The ORs (95% CIs) comparing those in the highest relative to those in the lowest OBS equal interval categories were 0.50 (0.38-0.66) for CRP, 0.50 (0.36-0.71) for the total WBC count, and 0.75 (0.58-0.98) for LDL-cholesterol; all three p-values for trend were <0.001. The OBS-HDL-cholesterol association was statistically significantly inverse among females, but not among males. The OBS was not associated with serum albumin or triglycerides. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that an OBS may be associated with some, but not all, circulating lipids/lipoproteins and biomarkers of inflammation.