What are the psychological characteristics of bariatric surgery candidates? What components of the preoperative psychological evaluation are the most relevant to postsurgical outcomes? Bariatric surgery is a weight-loss tool that can resolve obesity-related comorbidities and improvements in quality of life. The degree of success experienced by patients depends largely on their ability to maintain postsurgical lifestyle changes affecting weight loss and maintenance. Understanding the psychological and behavioral issues unique to bariatric patients is important for primary care and mental health providers so that pre- and postsurgical treatment recommendations are developed to optimize outcomes.