To assess factors influencing short-term outcomes of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repairs in community-dwelling women of Liberia, Africa. Forty patients who underwent VVF repairs were analyzed. Primary outcome was continence status at 14 days post repair. Factors influencing continence status were characterized. The mean duration of leakage was 9.6 ±8.3 years, (3 months–28 years). Thirteen (33%) had previous repairs, and 6 (15%) had multiple fistula sites. Twenty-eight (70%) were continent at catheter removal. First time repairs had a higher continence rate compared to women with previous repairs, 78% and 54% respectively (p = 0.15). Seven (47%) juxtaurethral repairs were considered failures, while only one (9%) juxtacervical fistula remained incontinent (p =0.069). Controlling for duration of leakage, women with previous repairs were significantly less likely to be continent (p = 0.04; adjusted OR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.83). Patients with previous VVF repairs and juxtaurethral fistulae experience lower success rates; surgery remains an effective treatment for many VVF patients. © 2011, British Association of Urological Surgeons. All rights reserved.