HIV, inflammation, and calcium in atherosclerosis.

Academic Article


  • Atherosclerosis is consistently higher among the HIV-positive patients, with or without treatment, than among the HIV-negative population. Risk factors linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV infection are both traditional and HIV specific although the underlying mechanisms are not fully delineated. Three key sequential biological processes are postulated to accelerate progression of atherosclerosis in the context of HIV: (1) inflammation, (2) transformation of monocytes to macrophages and then foam cells, and (3) apoptosis of foam cells leading to plaque development through Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress. These proatherogenic mechanisms are further affected when HIV interacts with the genes involved in various phases within this network.
  • Keywords

  • HIV, atherosclerosis, calcium, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, Animals, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Calcium, Cell Differentiation, Cell Movement, Disease Progression, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Foam Cells, HIV Infections, Humans, Inflammation, Plaque, Atherosclerotic, Risk Factors, Signal Transduction
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Shrestha S; Irvin MR; Grunfeld C; Arnett DK
  • Start Page

  • 244
  • End Page

  • 250
  • Volume

  • 34
  • Issue

  • 2