OBJECTIVE: To analyze the main factors associated to depression at 8 months postpartum, looking more particularly at women's employment. METHOD: 352 women responded to a face-to-face questionnaire few days after the birth, at the Maternity Hospital "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, and 292 of them responded to a telephone interview 8 months later. Psychological distress 8 months after delivery was evaluated with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). RESULTS: 8 months postpartum, 5% of women were depressed. 32% of women were non-satisfied with their current working status, without differences among those working and those staying at home. 13% of sample reported problems related to work (such as being fired or no flexible working hours). The women's actual working status was not associated with depression, while the congruence between what the woman was doing (working/at home) and her wishes was. The relationship was still significant after adjusting for other factors associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Employment dissatisfaction is negatively associated with women's health after childbirth. To promote mothers' wellbeing, the question of women's employment after birth should be addressed.