Background: Whether resistance exercise is as effective as aerobic exercise for body-weight management is debated. Purpose: To compare 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and macronutrient oxidation elicited by comparable bouts of stationary cycling (BK) and weightlifting (WTS). Methods: 24-h EE and macronutrient oxidation were measured in 10 nonobese male subjects on three occasions using whole-room indirect calorimetry. BK and WTS days were compared with a nonexercise control day (Con). Results: During BK, subjects exercised for 49 ± 7 min (mean ± SEM) at 70% of V̇O2max and expended 546 ± 16 kcal. During WTS, subjects performed a 70-min circuit consisting of four sets of 10 different exercises at 70% of exercise-specific 1-repetition maximum and expended 448 ± 21 kcal (P < 0.001 vs BK). 24-h EE on BK and WTS days (2787 ± 76 kcal·d-1, 2730 ± 106 kcal·d-1, respectively, P > 0.05) was elevated compared with Con (2260 ± 96 kcal·d-1, P < 0.001), but 24-h respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was not different. 24-h carbohydrate oxidation was significantly elevated on the exercise days (BK = 370 ± 18 g·d-1, WTS = 349 ± 23 g·d-1, P > 0.05) compared with Con (249 ± 29 g·d-1, P = 0.04). 24-h fat and protein oxidation were the same on BK, WTS, and Con days. EE and macronutrient oxidation in the periods after exercise also did not differ across conditions. Conclusion: In men, resistance exercise has a similar effect on 24-h EE and macronutrient oxidation as a comparable bout of aerobic exercise. Neither exercise produced an increase in 24-h fat oxidation above that observed on a nonexercise control day.