©, Copyright Association for Childhood Education International. Discipline and behavior modification in schools is a culturally dependent and sensitive subject. Despite research demonstrating that corporal punishment is not effective, it remains a common practice in over 70 countries worldwide. School discipline practices vary widely around the world and even within national borders. While physical punishment continues to be practiced around the world, many schools employ a system of rewards and sanctions. All of these practices are external to the child, and can be ineffective in cultivating an innate sense of right and wrong in children. Best practices call for the creation of an environment in which children develop their own sense of morality through guided reflection and autonomous growth. In this article, the authors explore research on this topic and elucidate the dichotomy between heteronomous and autonomous moral development.