Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of LTs in NASH (n= 129) and non-NASH (n= 775) aetiologies carried out at a single centre between 1999 and 2009. Results: Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in NASH (90%, 88% and 85%, respectively) were comparable with those in non-NASH (92%, 86% and 80%, respectively) patients. Mortality within 4 months of LT was twice as high in NASH as in non-NASH patients (8.5% vs. 4.2%; P= 0.04). Compared with non-NASH patients, post-LT mortality in NASH patients was more commonly caused by infectious (38% vs. 26%; P < 0.05) or cardiac (19% vs. 7%; P < 0.05) aetiologies. Five-year survival was lower in NASH patients with a high-risk phenotype (age >60 years, body mass index >30 kg/m2, with hypertension and diabetes) than in NASH patients without these characteristics (72% vs. 87%; P= 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that 5-year overall survival in NASH was equivalent to that in Laennec's cirrhosis (85% vs. 80%; P= 0.87), but lower than that in cirrhosis of cryptogenic aetiology (85% vs. 96%; P= 0.04). Conclusions: Orthotopic LT in NASH was associated with increased early postoperative mortality, but 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were equivalent to those in non-NASH patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.