Exposure of cells to complex mixtures of oxidized lipids such as those found in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) formation. The source of the ROS/RNS within cells is unknown; it is thought they may be involved in redox cell signaling. Although this possibility was initially overlooked, it is becoming clear that mitochondria, which are a source of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, may play a critical role in the response of cells on exposure to oxidized lipids. In this study, we tested the possibility that mitochondria are a potential source of oxLDL-dependent formation of ROS/RNS in endothelial cells. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that a significant proportion of oxLDL-dependent dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence is colocalized to mitochondria. In support of this concept, rho0 endothelial cells showed a substantial decrease in ROS/RNS formation stimulated by oxLDL. In contrast, mostly nonmitochondrial DCF fluorescence was detected in cells exposed to an extracellular source of hydrogen peroxide. The exposure of cells to a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and urate resulted in a decrease in oxLDL-induced DCF fluorescence that was restored by addition of nitric oxide donors to the medium. Taken together, these results suggest that oxLDL-dependent DCF fluorescence is mitochondrially associated and may be due to the formation of peroxynitrite. Copyright © 2005 the American Physiological Society.