In this paper, the results of a study designed to evaluate the costs and benefits of selected response inducement techniques in mail survey research are reported. Traditionally, survey researchers have considered only the response rates obtained from different inducements without incorporating costs. Four response inducement techniques that have consistently improved response rates were compared on the basis of their relative contributions to response rate improvements and the per response cost of each. A methodology for evaluating the cost impact of various response inducements is developed along with an analysis of the cost of various inducements. © 1989.