It is unknown how to use human embryonic stem cell (hESC) to effectively treat hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Using a porcine model of postinfarction LV remodeling, this study examined the functional improvement of enhanced delivery of combined transplantation of hESC-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and hESC-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with a fibrin three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold biomatrix. To facilitate tracking the transplanted cells, the hESCs were genetically modified to stably express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (GFP/Luc). Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the first diagonal coronary artery for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion. Two million each of GFP/Luc hESC-derived ECs and SMCs were seeded in the 3D porous biomatrix patch and applied to the region of ischemia/reperfusion for cell group (MI+P+C, n = 6), whereas biomatrix without cell (MI+P, n = 5), or saline only (MI, n = 5) were applied to control group hearts with same coronary artery ligation. Functional outcome (1 and 4 weeks follow-up) of stem cell transplantation was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The transplantation of hESC-derived vascular cells resulted in significant LV functional improvement. Significant engraftment of hESC-derived cells was confirmed by both in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescent imaging. The mechanism underlying the functional beneficial effects of cardiac progenitor transplantation is attributed to the increased neovascularization. These findings demonstrate a promising therapeutic potential of using these hESC-derived vascular cell types and the mode of patch delivery. © AlphaMed Press.