The effect of dosage of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) on survival in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) is unknown. In this study, 200 critically ill patients with ARF were randomly assigned to receive CVVHDF with prefilter replacement fluid at an effluent rate of either 35 ml/kg per h (high dosage) or 20 ml/kg per h (standard dosage). The primary study outcome, survival to the earlier of either intensive care unit discharge or 30 d, was 49% in the high-dosage arm and 56% in the standard-dosage arm (odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.32; P = 0.32). Among hospital survivors, 69% of those in the high-dosage arm recovered renal function compared with 80% of those in the standard-dosage arm (P = 0.29); therefore, a difference in patient survival or renal recovery was not detected between patients receiving high-dosage or standard-dosage CVVHDF. Copyright © 2008 by the American Society of Nephrology.