Background and objectives Many factors have been shown to be associated with ESRD patient placement on the waiting list and receipt of kidney transplantation. Our study aim was to evaluate factors and assess the interplay of patient characteristics associated with progression to transplantation in a large cohort of referred patients from a single institution. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We examined 3029 consecutive adult patients referred for transplantation from 2003 to 2008. Uni- and multivariable logistic models were used to assess factors associated with progress to transplantation including receipt of evaluations, waiting list placement, and receipt of a transplant. Results A total of 56%, 27%, and 17% of referred patients were evaluated, were placed on the waiting list, and received a transplant over the study period, respectively. Older age, lower median income, and noncommercial insurance were associated with decreased likelihood to ascend steps to receive a transplant. There was no difference in the proportion of evaluations between African Americans (57%) and Caucasians (56%). Age-adjusted differences in waiting list placement by race were attenuated with further adjustment for income and insurance. There was no difference in the likelihood of waiting list placement between African Americans and Caucasians with commercial insurance. Conclusions Race/ethnicity, age, insurance status, and income are predominant factors associated with patient progress to transplantation. Disparities by race/ethnicity may be largely explained by insurance status and income, potentially suggesting that variable insurance coverage exacerbates disparities in access to transplantation in the ESRD population, despite Medicare entitlement. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.