OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to quantify prevalence, incidence, and recurrence of oral lesions (OL) among a population in the Southeast. METHODS: A retrospective study based on chart review was conducted among patients (n = 744) who were ≥19 years of age and initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January 2000 and June 2006 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) 1917 Clinic. Patients' laboratory data and oral conditions were recorded for 2 years after enrollment into the study. RESULTS: During 2 years of follow-up, the period prevalence of individuals experienced at least one OL was 35.6% (266/744). Among all of the 374 episodes of OL, 183 were new cases, while 57 were recurrences. The OL person-visit incidence rate was 0.02 per 100 person-visits. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) was the most frequent manifestation in terms of period prevalence (74.9%) with a person-visit incident rate of 0.01 per 100 person-visits. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing HAART continue to be affected by HIV-related oral conditions, especially OPC. These results clearly indicate that OL during HIV infection are still highly prevalent in spite of the improvements in medical care and the availability of HAART. Copyright © 2011 by The Southern Medical Association.