This study investigated the effect of dehydration on measurements of body composition by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Ten endurance-trained male athletes between the ages of 18 and 42 years performed an endurance training session consisting of running until body weight was reduced by approximately 3%. Body composition was determined prior to exercise and immediately after exercise by HW and BIA techniques. A high correlation existed between pre- and postdehydration for both HW and BIA. Validity coefficients between HW and BIA were moderate (predehydration 0.85 and postdehydration 0.82). In addition, BIA percent fat was 3.5% higher than HW percent fat. The BIA revealed a mean loss of 2.1% fat BIA and only 0.9% fat HW after approximately 45 minutes of exercise. BIA also showed an increase in percent body water (mean = 2.6%) in all 10 subjects after dehydration. There are indications that BIA, with its present equational configuration, is measuring something other than lean body weight.