The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent female physical fitness and self-concept are affected by dance team participation in high school. Eight dancers were tested once prior to and once four months after dance team participation. Eight participants from physical education classes, matched for age, weight, height, grade, and race, were tested once at the same time as the second dance team test. Physiological tests were maximum oxygen uptake, sit-and-reach, one-repetition maximum bench press, skinfolds, and hydrostatic weighing. The self-concept tests were Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and Body Cathexis Scale. Dependent one-tailed t tests were run to determine differences between dance team pre- and posttests and control and dance team posttests. Dance subjects increased maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum bench press in addition to improving their body composition as evidenced by a significant decrease in total skinfolds and a near significant decrease in percent body fat. The dance team had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake than did controls. No other significant differences were seen between groups. Dance team participants significantly improved physical self and social self on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. No other significant differences were seen. A factor that may have affected the self-concept results in this study was low dance team status, due to a combination of unsuccessful previous dance teams and a losing football season. Within the limitations of this study, these results indicate that physical fitness is improved as a result of dance team participation; however, self-concept seems to be affected only minimally, if at all, as compared with participation in physical education classes.