Using three-pulse four-wave-mixing optical spectroscopy, we study the ultrafast dynamics of the quantum Hall system. We observe striking differences as compared to an undoped system, where the 2D electron gas is absent. In particular, we observe a large off-resonant signal with strong oscillations. Using a microscopic theory, we show that these are due to many-particle coherences created by interactions between photoexcited carriers and collective excitations of the 2D electron gas. We extract quantitative information about the dephasing and interference of these coherences. © 2006 The American Physical Society.