Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States. Deployment of stents and vascular grafts has been a major therapeutic method for treatment. However, restenosis, incomplete endothelialization, and thrombosis hamper the long term clinical success. As a solution to meet these current challenges, we have developed a native endothelial ECM mimicking self-assembled nanofibrous matrix to serve as a new treatment model. The nanofibrous matrix is formed by self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs), which contain nitric oxide (NO) donating residues, endothelial cell adhesive ligands composed of YIGSR peptide sequence, and enzyme-mediated degradable sites. NO was successfully released from the nanofibrous matrix rapidly within 48 h, followed by sustained release over period of 30 days. The NO releasing nanofibrous matrix demonstrated a significantly enhanced proliferation of endothelial cells (51 ± 3% to 67 ± 2%) but reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (35 ± 2% to 16 ± 3%) after 48 h of incubation. There was also a 150-fold decrease in platelet attachment on the NO releasing nanofibrous matrix (470 ± 220 platelets/cm 2 ) compared to the collagen-I (73 ± 22 × 10 3 platelets/cm 2 ) coated surface. The nanofibrous matrix has the potential to be applied to various cardiovascular implants as a self-assembled coating, thereby providing a native endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.