Osteopontin (OPN) is a ubiquitous multiphosphorylated secretory glycoprotein. Twenty-seven phosphorylated serines have been identified in bovine milk OPN. Nineteen of these phosphoacceptor sites are fully conserved in rat OPN, all displaying the consensus for the Golgi apparatus casein kinase, G-CK (S-x-E/Sp). Here we show that rat OPN is indeed phosphorylated more readily than casein itself by G-CK from either rat mammary gland or liver. OPN is also phosphorylated by casein kinases-1 and -2 (CK1, CK2), though less readily than casein. If OPN kinase activities are normalized in terms of casein phosphorylation, OPN phosphorylation rate by G-CR is 78-fold and 19-fold higher than those measured with CK2 and CK1, respectively. These data, in conjunction with the specific location of G-CK to the Golgi apparatus, where CK2 and CK1 are hardly detectable, support the view that G-CK is the main if not the only physiological agent committed to the phosphorylation of OPN.