A bridge may be functionally obsolete or have a deficient structure because of older design codes or features. Such bridges are not unsafe for normal vehicle traffic, but they can be vulnerable to unusual traffic conditions, such as heavy trucks braking in emergency situations or during a disaster. Continued ignorance of deficiencies or lack of sufficient maintenance can cause a bridge to be subjected to hazards and damage, and disrupt its reliable and efficient functions. Usually, a routing visual inspection is sufficient for regular bridge safety check; however it may not effectively explore the potential safety problems related to bridge dynamic structural behaviors. So in this paper, based on routine bridge weight-in-motion (B-WIM) results, a simulation approach is developed and proposed to predict bridge safety and integrity if heavy trucks experience emergency braking on the bridge. Also, a specific bridge US-78 was selected in a case study to demonstrate the response of the bridge behavior, related effects on the moments and displacements during emergency braking. The results provided an improved understanding of the bridge dynamic behaviors and deficiencies of this bridge, and finally, led to the suggested retrofit for appropriate maintenance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.