Harmful or physiologic: Diagnosing fibrinolysis shutdown in a trauma cohort with rotational thromboelastometry

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Despite its central role in early trauma coagulopathy, abnormal fibrinolysis continues to be poorly understood. Excessive fibrinolysis is a known contributor to mortality. Recent studies with thromboelastography (TEG) suggest decreased fibrinolysis (or shutdown) may be just as harmful. Considering the broad use of 2 different viscoelastic assays, which are not interchangeable, we proposed for the first time to define and characterize fibrinolysis shutdown using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of severely injured patients with admission ROTEM. Shutdown was defined by the best Youden index value of the maximum lysis. Fibrinolysis phenotypes were physiologic, hyperfibrinolysis, and shutdown. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated association between Injury Severity Score and the fibrinolysis phenotypes, and the association among shutdown phenotype with mortality, blood transfusion, and thrombotic events. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty patients were included. Maximum lysis <3.5% was selected to define shutdown. Predominant phenotype was physiologic (70.7%), followed by shutdown (25.6%) and hyperfibrinolysis (3.6%). Shutdown patients had higher Injury Severity Score, lower base excess, and required more transfusions than physiologic group. Shutdown was associated with acidosis (base excess: odds ratio [OR] for a 1 mEq/L increase, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98; P = .0094) and the combination of clotting derangements, higher clot firmness (maximum clot formation: OR for a 2 mm increase, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.27; P < .0001), lower fibrinogen (OR for a 0.5 g/dL decrease, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.84; P = .0006), and poor clot formation dynamics (clot formation time: OR for a 5 seconds increase, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15-1.36; P < .0001). Fibrinolysis shutdown was not independently associated with mortality (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.28-1.33; P = .21), massive transfusion (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.79-5.74; P = .1308), or thrombotic events (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.37-3.15; P = .874). Shutdown was associated with increased 24-hour transfusion (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.24-4.04; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher injury burden, evidence of shock, and greater need for blood transfusions, early fibrinolysis shutdown was not associated with mortality, suggesting that it could represent an adaptive physiologic response to life-threatening trauma.
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    Author List

  • Gomez-Builes JC; Acuna SA; Nascimento B; Madotto F; Rizoli SB
  • Start Page

  • 840
  • End Page

  • 849
  • Volume

  • 127
  • Issue

  • 4