Kidney health and manifestation of disease in transgender men, women, and nonbinary individuals are not well understood. Transgender individuals commonly receive gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) to align their outward appearance with their gender. Recent attention to the differences in fundamental kidney parameters has identified that transgender individuals may manifest levels of these biomarkers differently than their cisgender counterparts. Improving understanding of the differences in biomarkers and in the development of kidney disease is essential to providing appropriate kidney care to this vulnerable population. In this review, we introduce the current information related to GAHT and kidney health and highlight the significant gaps in our understanding of how GAHT may affect kidney physiology and pathophysiology.