Polymeric tissue scaffolds engineered to mimic the size scale; chemistry and functionality of the ECM have received tremendous attention in recent years. We have recently used electrophoretic deposition, EPD, to deposit nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystals (HA), onto electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds of polycaprolactone, PCL containing dispersed surface modified carbon nanofibers, mCNF. Following the EPD process, the nanoHA deposition morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the average HA percentage weight on the scaffolds was quantified by thermogravimetric analysis. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were cultured for up to 7 days on aligned PCL nanofiber scaffolds containing 0 wt%, 0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt% mCNF with and without electrophoretic deposition of HA particles, as a preliminary study to assess their cytocompatibility. The presence of mCNF in the scaffold did not appear to significantly affect the cellular morphology after 7 days. Cells attached to the nanofibrous substrate adopted "spread" morphology, which is essential for cell survival. In this study, we found that there is a clear advantage of using mCNF to improve the stiffness and the strength of nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning while HA could be a promising bone morphogenic protein delivery vehicle. © 2011 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.