Tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which can provide results rapidly to guide therapeutic decision-making, offer patient care advantages over laboratory-based tests that require several days to provide results.Wecompared results from the Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG (Xpert) assay to results from two currently approved nucleic acid amplification assays in 1,722 female and 1,387 male volunteers. Results for chlamydia in females demonstrated sensitivities for endocervical, vaginal, and urine samples of 97.4%, 98.7%, and 97.6%, respectively, and for urine samples from males, a sensitivity of 97.5%, with all specificity estimates being ≥99.4%. Results for gonorrhea in females demonstrated sensitivities for endocervical, vaginal, and urine samples of 100.0%, 100.0%, and 95.6%, respectively, and for urine samples from males, a sensitivity of 98.0%, with all estimates of specificity being ≥99.8%. These results indicate that this short-turnaround-time test can be used to accurately test patients and to possibly do so at the site of care, thus potentially improving chlamydia and gonorrhea control efforts. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.