Background: Among women with symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse undergoing vaginal surgery in the Vaginal hysterectomy with Native Tissue Vault Suspension vs Sacrospinous Hysteropexy with Graft Suspension (Study for Uterine Prolapse Procedures Randomized Trial) trial, sacrospinous hysteropexy with graft (hysteropexy) resulted in a lower composite surgical failure rate than vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral suspension over 5 years. Objective: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the rate of surgical failure over 5 years among women undergoing sacrospinous hysteropexy with graft vs vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral suspension for uterovaginal prolapse. Study Design: This planned secondary analysis of a comparative effectiveness trial of 2 transvaginal apical suspensions (NCT01802281) defined surgical failure as either retreatment of prolapse, recurrence of prolapse beyond the hymen, or bothersome prolapse symptoms. Baseline clinical and sociodemographic factors for eligible participants receiving the randomized surgery (N=173) were compared across categories of failure (≤1 year, >1 year, and no failure) with rank-based tests. Factors with adequate prevalence and clinical relevance were assessed for minimally adjusted bivariate associations using piecewise exponential survival models adjusting for randomized apical repair and clinical site. The multivariable model included factors with bivariate P<.2, additional clinically important variables, apical repair, and clinical site. Backward selection determined final retained risk factors (P<.1) with statistical significance evaluated by Bonferroni correction (P<.005). Final factors were assessed for interaction with type of apical repair at P<.1. Association is presented by adjusted hazard ratios and further illustrated by categorization of risk factors. Results: In the final multivariable model, body mass index (increase of 5 kg/m2: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.2; P<.001) and duration of prolapse symptoms (increase of 1 year: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.1; P<.005) were associated with composite surgical failure, where rates of failure were 2.9 and 1.8 times higher in women with obesity and women who are overweight than women who have normal weight and women who are underweight (95% confidence intervals, 1.5–5.8 and 0.9–3.5) and 3.0 times higher in women experiencing >5 years prolapse symptoms than women experiencing ≤5 years prolapse symptoms (95% confidence interval, 1.8–5.0). Sacrospinous hysteropexy with graft had a lower rate of failure than hysterectomy with uterosacral suspension (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–1.0; P=.05). The interaction between symptom duration and apical repair (P=.07) indicated that failure was less likely after hysteropexy than hysterectomy for those with ≤5 years symptom duration (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.9), but not for those with >5 years symptom duration (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.5–2.1). Conclusion: Obesity and duration of prolapse symptoms have been determined as risk factors associated with surgical failure over 5 years from transvaginal prolapse repair, regardless of approach. Providers and patients should consider these modifiable risk factors when discussing treatment plans for bothersome prolapse.