Background: Nitroalkenes are electrophilic anti-inflammatory mediators that signal via Michael addition and are metabolized in vivo. Results: Prostaglandin reductase-1 is identified as a nitroalkene reductase. Conclusion: Prostaglandin reductase-1 reduces fatty acid nitroalkenes to nitroalkanes, inactivating electrophilic reactivity. Significance: A mammalian enzyme is identified that metabolizes fatty acid nitroalkenes in vivo to silence their signaling reactions. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.