The adequacy of fellowship training in the field of infectious diseases was assessed by means of a survey of recently graduated fellows. Surveys were mailed to all individuals who had passed the American Board of Internal Medicine's board certification examination in infectious diseases since 1992. A total of 666 completed surveys were returned by the deadline (response rate, 36%). Although most recent graduates thought that training in the standard components of clinical infectious diseases was adequate, only 50% thought that training in infection control was adequate. Fewer than 1 in 3 believed that they had received adequate training in the business aspects of infectious diseases practice. The adequacy and duration of research training were linked to ultimate career choice. These results form the basis for the Infectious Diseases Society of America's new initiatives to assist with more-diversified and relevant fellowship training.