Introduction: This clinical trial assessed the activity of reproxalap, a novel reactive aldehyde species modulator, and estimated clinically relevant thresholds for changes in ocular itching and redness in an allergic conjunctivitis field trial. Methods: This was a randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled phase 2 trial. Patients with ragweed-associated allergic conjunctivitis were assessed over 28 days in an environmental setting with approximately four doses per day of either 0.25% reproxalap, 0.5% reproxalap, or vehicle. Patients recorded ocular itching, redness, tearing, and eyelid swelling scores (each with a 0–4 scale, except for a 0–3 scale for swelling), and completed the Allergic Conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Mixed model of repeated measures analysis demonstrated statistically lower itching and tearing scores (pooled P = 0.026 and P < 0.001, respectively) and numerically lower redness and eyelid swelling scores than vehicle on days when pollen exceeded the 95th percentile value. Using three anchor-based and three distribution-based approaches, the meaningful within-patient change and the between-group meaningful difference for patient-reported ocular itching and redness was estimated to be approximately 0.5. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event associated with reproxalap was transient irritation upon instillation. Conclusion: In a field clinical trial, reproxalap was well tolerated and superior to vehicle in reducing ocular itching on high-pollen days. The clinical meaningfulness threshold estimates of 0.5 units are among the first such calculations generated for the standard ocular itching and redness scores, providing important context for the clinical interpretation of clinical trials in allergic conjunctivitis.