Recent findings have demonstrated an indispensable role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the signaling pathways and cell populations that regulate GM-CSF production in vivo remain to be elucidated. Our work demonstrates that IL-1R is required for GM-CSF production after both TCR- and cytokine-induced stimulation of immune cells in vitro. Conventional αβ and γδ T cells were both identified to be potent producers of GM-CSF. Moreover, secretion of GM-CSF was dependent on IL-1R under both IL-12- and IL-23-induced stimulatory conditions. Deficiency in IL-1R conferred significant protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and this correlated with reduced production of GM-CSF and attenuated infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS. We also find that GM-CSF production in vivo is not restricted to a defined CD4 + T cell lineage but is rather heterogeneously expressed in the effector CD4 + T cell population. In addition, inflammasome-derived IL-1β upstream of IL-1R is a critical regulator of GM-CSF production by T cells during priming, and the adapter protein, MyD88, promotes GM-CSF production in both αβ and γδ T cells. These findings highlight the importance of inflammasome-derived IL-1β and the IL-1R/MyD88 signaling axis in the regulation of GM-CSF production. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.