Circulating ghrelin and GLP-1 are not affected by habitual diet.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are gut hormones known to induce hunger and satiety, respectively. Current knowledge about the effects of different macronutrients on circulating ghrelin and GLP-1 comes mainly from acute test meals, whereas little is known about the effects of chronic dietary intake on gut hormone secretion. This study was designed to examine whether 8-week habituation to diets with different percentages of carbohydrate and fat would affect serum ghrelin, GLP-1, and subjective hunger in a postabsorptive state and in response to a standard liquid mixed meal. METHODS: Sixty-one overweight men and women were provided all food for 8 weeks of either a higher-carbohydrate/lower-fat diet (High-CHO/Low-FAT; 55% CHO, 18% PRO, 27% FAT) or a lower-carbohydrate/higher-fat diet (Low-CHO/High-FAT; 43% CHO, 18% PRO, 39% FAT). After overnight fasts at baseline and week 8, participants consumed a standard liquid meal (7 kcals/kg, 58.6% CHO, 17.4% PRO, 24% FAT). Blood was sampled before the meal and at 15, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min to determine total serum ghrelin and active GLP-1. Hunger was assessed by a visual analog scale. Mixed models were used to evaluate whether the temporal patterns of total serum ghrelin and active GLP-1 differed with diet. RESULTS: Although both diet groups reported greater hunger after 8 weeks (p=0.03), circulating ghrelin and GLP-1 were not affected by acclimation to different macronutrients. CONCLUSION: Habituation to different diets does not appear to influence fasting ghrelin, fasting GLP-1, or responses of these gut hormones to a standard meal.
  • Published In


  • Adult, Diet, Feeding Behavior, Female, Gastrointestinal Hormones, Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ellis AC; Chandler-Laney P; Casazza K; Goree LL; McGwin G; Gower BA
  • Start Page

  • 1
  • End Page

  • 5
  • Volume

  • 176
  • Issue

  • 1-3