Successful organ transplantation between species is now possible, using genetic modifications. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the differences and similarities in kidney function between humans, primates, and pigs, in preparation for pig-allograft to human xenotransplantation. The kidney, as the principal defender of body homeostasis, acts as a sensor, effector, and regulator of physiologic feedback systems. Considerations are made for anticipated effects on each system when a pig kidney is placed into a human recipient. Discussion topics include anatomy, global kidney function, sodium and water handling, kidney hormone production and response to circulating hormones, acid–base balance, and calcium and phosphorus handling. Based on available data, pig kidneys are anticipated to be compatible with human physiology, despite a few barriers.