UNLABELLED: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Nocturia is a common and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom, particularly in men. Many single drug therapies have limited benefit. For men who have persistent nocturia despite alpha-blocker therapy, the addition of behavioural and exercise therapy is statistically superior to anticholinergic therapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare reductions in nocturia resulting from adding either behavioural treatment or antimuscarinic drug therapy to α-adrenergic antagonist (α-blocker) therapy in men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were men who had continuing urinary frequency >8 voids/day) and urgency after 4 weeks of α-blocker therapy run-in and who had ≥1 nightly episode of nocturia. Participants received individually titrated drug therapy (extended-release oxybutynin) or multicomponent behavioural treatment (pelvic floor muscle training, delayed voiding and urge suppression techniques). Seven-day bladder diaries were used to calculate reductions in mean nocturia. RESULTS: A total of 127 men aged 42-88 years with ≥1 nocturia episode per night were included in the study. There were 76 men who had a mean of ≥2 nocturia episodes. Among those with ≥1 nocturia episode, behavioural treatment reduced nightly nocturia by a mean of 0.97 episodes and was significantly more effective than drug therapy (mean reduction = 0.56 episodes; P = 0.01). Participants with ≥2 episodes nocturia at baseline also showed larger changes with behavioural treatment compared with antimuscarinic therapy (mean reduction = 1.26 vs 0.61; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Both behavioural treatment and drug therapy reduced nocturia in men with ≥1 episode of nocturia/night when added to α-blocker therapy. These results were similar even when only those with ≥2 episodes of nocturia were considered. The addition of behavioural treatment was statistically better than bladder-relaxant therapy for nocturia.