Despite antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses being implicated in protection from HIV-1 infection, there is limited evidence that they control virus replication. The high mutability of HIV-1 enables the virus to rapidly adapt, and thus evidence of viral escape is a very sensitive approach to demonstrate the importance of this response. To enable us to deconvolute ADCC escape from neutralizing antibody (nAb) escape, we identified individuals soon after infection with detectable ADCC responses, but no nAb responses. We evaluated the kinetics of ADCC and nAb responses, and viral escape, in five recently HIV-1- infected individuals. In one individual we detected viruses that escaped from ADCC responses but were sensitive to nAbs. In the remaining four participants, we did not find evidence of viral evolution exclusively associated with ADCC-mediating non-neutralizing Abs (nnAbs). However, in all individuals escape from nAbs was rapid, occurred at very low titers, and in three of five cases we found evidence of viral escape before detectable nAb responses. These data show that ADCC-mediating nnAbs can drive immune escape in early infection, but that nAbs were far more effective. This suggests that if ADCC responses have a protective role, their impact is limited after systemic virus dissemination.