Turner syndrome mosaicism: Challenges in identification and management in primary care

Academic Article


  • The spectrum of Turner syndrome (TS) includes Turner syndrome mosaicism (TSM), which is typically a nonhereditary chromosomal abnormality. Turner syndrome mosaicism presents uncommonly to primary care providers (PCPs), who often fail to recognize the subtle signs. The average age at diagnosis for common TS and TSM karyotype is 5.4 years, averaging 7.3 years. Often genetic confirmation, management, and recommended surveillance are delayed. Oftentimes, the PCP suspects a genetic etiology of an unusual phenotype, such as pinna placement or other unusual ear configurations, webbed neck with low posterior hairline, wide-spaced nipples, or short stature among other presentations. The PCP or geneticist orders diagnostic studies to confirm the diagnosis, such as a karyotype. After diagnosis, the PCP refers to the geneticist who initiates surveillance and makes recommendations for management. There are potential neurocognitive, cardiovascular, renal, reproductive, and endocrine issues. Treatment literature is vague and parental concerns are linked to quality mental health and quality of life for the family member with TS or TSM. The purpose of this article was to use a case study to introduce the topic of TS and TSM and to assist the PCP in the identification and management of patient and family concerns.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Bryant PH; Jacoby D; Bunch M; Speck PM
  • Start Page

  • 400
  • End Page

  • 404
  • Volume

  • 34
  • Issue

  • 2