Testicular Germ-Cell Tumors with Spermatic Cord Involvement: A Retrospective International Multi-Institutional Experience

Academic Article

Abstract

  • The 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual designates discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue by testicular germ cell tumors as a metastatic deposit. We conducted a retrospective international multi-institutional study to validate the current recommendations. Thirty-three (72%) nonseminomatous and 13 (28%) seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors were collected from 15 institutions in America, Europe, and Asia. Testicular tumor size ranged from 1.3 to 18.0 cm (mean: 6.1). Cases were classified as discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue (n = 26), continuous cord involvement (n = 17), or cord lymphovascular invasion (n = 3). The mean follow-up was 39 months. Clinical stage for discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft-tissue patients was I (local disease) in 2/24 (8%), II (regional disease) in 6/24 (25%), and III (distant disease) in 16/24 (67%) cases; 16 (67%) patients presented with distant metastasis. Clinical stage for continuous cord involvement patients was I in 9/17 (53%), II in 4/17 (23%), and III in 4/17 (23%); 4 (23%) patients presented with distant metastasis. Disease progression was seen in 4 patients with discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue and 5 with continuous cord-involvement (p = 0.699). When comparing discontinuous and continuous cord involvement, a significant difference was found in cord margin status (p = 0.044), spermatic cord tumor size (p = 0.016), lymph-node involvement (p = 0.037), distant metastasis (p = 0.010), individual clinical stage (p = 0.003), and nonadvanced vs. advanced disease (p = 0.003) at presentation. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, histology, testicular tumor size, percent of embryonal carcinoma, lymphovascular invasion, and cord margin status, discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue was significantly associated (p = 0.011) with advanced clinical stage at presentation. Our findings support the designation of metastatic disease for discontinuous involvement of spermatic cord soft tissue, as introduced by the 8th edition of the AJCC staging.
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  • Modern Pathology  Journal
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    Author List

  • Rodriguez Pena MDC; Canete-Portillo S; Amin A; Aron M; Colombo P; Cox R; Baydar DE; Gallegos I; Khani F; Michalova K