Phylogenetic analysis of molecular pathways in Tregs Suppressor Function

Academic Article


  • AbstractTreg-mediated suppression of conventional T cells is a fundamental step in regulating the adaptive immune response. It is known that Treg first appeared in vertebrates. However, little is known about the of major suppression pathways mediated by Tregs. We employed artificial intelligence text mining system to highlight the suppression pathways currently known to be utilized by Tregs. Our system identified various pathways mediated by CTLA4, calcium signaling, NfkB and NFAT. We simultaneously employed detailed phylogenetic analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree building, ancestral sequence reconstruction, neutrality tests and positive selection test to investigate the evolution of Treg mediated pathways. We found that CTLA4 first appeared in vertebrates possibly arising from an IGV containing protein in cartilaginous fish. Conversely, we found that Tregs repurposed ancient pathways such as Calcineurin and CAMP Response Element Modulator. Interestingly, these two pathways were highly conserved between vertebrates and lower invertebrates indicating conservation of function. Taken together, our research indicate that Tregs developed its regulatory systems through evolution in vertebrates as well as reusing conserved ancient regulatory systems that are related to the innate immune system.
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  • Mickael M-E; Kubick N; Klimovich P; Bieńkowska I; Bhaumik S; Horbańczuk JO; Sacharczuk M; Basu R