Depression as a Predictor of Long-term Employment Outcomes Among Individuals With Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Academic Article


  • Objective: To examine the predictive ability of depression when considering long-term employment outcomes for individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) after controlling for key preinjury and injury-related variables. Design: Secondary data analysis. Setting: Community follow-up after discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation center. Participants: Individuals between 18 and 60 years old with moderate-to-severe TBI enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems database. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Employment status. Results: The prevalence of employment at 2 and 5 years post injury was 40.3% and 44.5%, respectively. Individuals identified as depressed at 1 year were more likely to be unemployed at 2 years post injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% CI, 1.38-2.27; P<.0001). Similar relations between current depression and future employment were observed from 1- and 2-year depression status predicting 5-year employment (1-year: OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.40; P<.0001: 2-year: OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.36-2.17; P<.0001). Conclusions: After controlling for baseline predictors variables, the experience of postinjury depression—a modifiable condition—contributes predictive ability to future employment outcomes. Incorporating assessments and/or interventions for depression into postacute rehabilitation programs could promote favorable employment outcomes after TBI.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 25053226
  • Author List

  • Klyce DW; Stromberg KA; Walker WC; Sima AP; Hoffman JM; Graham KM; Agyemang AA; Marwitz JH
  • Start Page

  • 1837
  • End Page

  • 1843
  • Volume

  • 100
  • Issue

  • 10