The 'A1' genetic variant of β-casein in milk has been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The keystone piece of supporting evidence is an ecological study positively correlating the incidence of T1D with amount of A1 β-casein consumption per capita. Of relevance, A1 β-casein consumption is also positively correlated with latitude, itself implicated in T1D through vitamin D deficiency. Ecological and biological evidence convincingly implicate vitamin D deficiency in T1D. Latitude is a confounder of the ecological data that underpin the hypothesis that A1 β-casein in cow's milk is a causative factor in T1D. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.