Chronic Kidney Disease is a common medical condition that frequently overlaps with neurologic disease. Neuroimaging can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnoses of neurologic illness, including those that result from renal impairment. Some neuroimaging studies also have the potential to lead to adverse effects on the kidneys necessitating a thoughtful approach to selection of imaging modalities. In particular, multimodal imaging is becoming increasingly common in patients presenting with symptoms of acute stroke, a population that may be at higher risk for renal complications. This article will summarize the neuroimaging manifestations of conditions with shared renal and neurologic involvement and highlight considerations regarding the use of contrast media, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and metformin-associated lactic acidosis.