Evolution of Immune Checkpoint Blockade–Induced Myocarditis Over 2 Years

Academic Article


  • Ipilimumab and nivolumab for melanoma induced smoldering myocarditis remitting with steroids. Rechallenge with nivolumab produced steroid-refractory myocarditis confirmed by electron microscopy. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate transiently reduced inflammation, but antithymocyte globulin induced remission. Cardiomyopathy with fatty infiltration ensued, but the patient succumbed to rampant melanoma progression after lymphocyte depletion. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.)
  • Authors

    Published In

  • JACC: Case Reports  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Norwood TG; Lenneman CA; Westbrook BC; Litovsky SH; McKee SB; Conry RM
  • Start Page

  • 203
  • End Page

  • 209
  • Volume

  • 2
  • Issue

  • 2