The variety and complexity of ocular infections have increased significantly in the last decade since the publication of Cumitech 13B, Laboratory Diagnosis of Ocular Infections (L. D. Gray, P. H. Gilligan, and W. C. Fowler, Cumitech 13B, Laboratory Diagnosis of Ocular Infections, 2010). The purpose of this practical guidance document is to review, for individuals working in clinical microbiology laborato-ries, current tools used in the laboratory diagnosis of ocular infections. This document begins by describing the complex, delicate anatomy of the eye, which often leads to limitations in specimen quantity, requiring a close working bond between laboratorians and ophthalmologists to ensure high-quality diagnostic care. Descriptions are provided of common ocular infections in developed nations and neglected ocular infections seen in developing nations. Subsequently, preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic aspects of laboratory diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are explored in depth.