Endovascular retrieval of Greenfield IVC filters 13 and 19 years post placement without major complication.

Academic Article


  • Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters were first introduced in 1967 by Kazi Mobin-Uddin and later improved by Lazar Greenfield in the 1980s becoming a major component of catastrophic pulmonary embolism prevention. Nevertheless, filters are not entirely harmless. The long term risks include caval thrombosis, visceral penetration, and filters can serve as a nidus for infection. Filter retrieval is often complicated by intimal hyperplasia especially with increased indwelling time. Historically, Greenfield filters in place for longer than 3 weeks were considered permanent due to the risks of retrieval. Herein we present 2 cases of successful retrieval of Greenfield filters 13 and 19 years post implantation.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Endovascular, Filter, IVC, Loop-snare, Venous, Adult, Anemia, Device Removal, Duodenum, Endovascular Procedures, Female, Foreign Bodies, Foreign-Body Migration, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Humans, Intestine, Small, Male, Middle Aged, Psoas Muscles, Vascular System Injuries, Vena Cava Filters, Vena Cava, Inferior
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Huang J; Bold M; Rajebi MR
  • Start Page

  • 15
  • End Page

  • 25
  • Volume

  • 11
  • Issue

  • 6