Peripheral nerves provide a promising source of motor control signals for neuroprosthetic devices. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of current peripheral nerve interfaces is limited by signal amplitude and stability. Here, we showed that the regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) serves as a biologically stable bioamplifier of efferent motor action potentials with long-term stability in upper limb amputees. Ultrasound assessments of RPNIs revealed prominent contractions during phantom finger flexion, confirming functional reinnervation of the RPNIs in two patients. The RPNIs in two additional patients produced electromyography signals with large signal-to-noise ratios. Using these RPNI signals, subjects successfully controlled a hand prosthesis in real-time up to 300 days without control algorithm recalibration. RPNIs show potential in enhancing prosthesis control for people with upper limb loss.