18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT performance in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a systematic review

Academic Article


  • Background: A systematic literature review of the performance of 18Fluorine-fluciclovine PET/CT for imaging of men with recurrent prostate cancer was performed. Methods: Scientific literature databases (MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Libraries) were searched systematically during Oct 2020 using PRISMA criteria. No limit was put on the date of publication. Prospective studies reporting a patient-level 18F-fluciclovine detection rate (DR) from ≥25 patients with recurrent prostate cancer were sought. Proceedings of relevant meetings held from 2018 through Oct 2020 were searched for abstracts meeting criteria. Results: Searches identified 321 unique articles. In total, nine articles (six papers and three conference abstracts), comprising a total of 850 patients met inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 6) relied on ASTRO-Phoenix Criteria, EAU-ESTRO-SIOG, and/or ASTRO-AUA guidelines to identify patients with biochemical recurrence. Patients’ PSA levels ranged from 0.02–301.7 ng/mL (median level per study, 0.34–4.10 ng/mL [n = 8]). Approximately 64% of patients had undergone prostatectomy, but three studies focused solely on post-prostatectomy patients. Adherence to imaging protocol guidelines was heterogeneous, with variance seen in administered activity, uptake and scan times. Overall patient-level DR varied between studies from 26% to 83%, with 78% of studies reporting a DR > 50%. DR was proportional to PSA, but even at PSA < 0.5 ng/mL DR of up to 53% were reported. Prostate/bed DR (n = 7) ranged from 18% to 78% and extra-prostatic rates (n = 6) from 8% to 72%. Pelvic node and bone lesion DR ranged from 8% to 47% and 0% to 26%, respectively (n = 5). 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT was shown to impact patient management and outcomes. Two studies reported 59–63% of patients to have a management change post-scan. A further study showed significant increase in failure-free survival following 18F-fluciclovine-guided compared with conventional imaging-guided radiotherapy planning. Conclusions: 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT shows good performance in patients with recurrent prostate cancer leading to measurable clinical benefits. Careful adherence to recommended imaging protocols may help optimize DR.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Rais-Bahrami S; Efstathiou JA; Turnbull CM; Camper SB; Kenwright A; Schuster DM; Scarsbrook AF
  • Start Page

  • 997
  • End Page

  • 1006
  • Volume

  • 24
  • Issue

  • 4