Background: Adults who have experienced multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) events have a very high risk for additional events. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are each associated with an increased risk for recurrent CVD events following a myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: We compared the risk for recurrent CVD events among US adults with health insurance who were hospitalized for an MI between 2014 and 2017 and had (1) CVD prior to their MI but were free from diabetes or CKD (prior CVD), and those without CVD prior to their MI who had (2) diabetes only, (3) CKD only and (4) both diabetes and CKD. We followed patients from hospital discharge through December 31, 2018 for recurrent CVD events including coronary, stroke, and peripheral artery events. Results: Among 162,730 patients, 55.2% had prior CVD, and 28.3%, 8.3%, and 8.2% had diabetes only, CKD only, and both diabetes and CKD, respectively. The rate for recurrent CVD events per 1000 person-years was 135 among patients with prior CVD and 110, 124 and 171 among those with diabetes only, CKD only and both diabetes and CKD, respectively. Compared to patients with prior CVD, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for recurrent CVD events was 0.92 (95%CI 0.90–0.95), 0.89 (95%CI: 0.85–0.93), and 1.18 (95%CI: 1.14–1.22) among those with diabetes only, CKD only, and both diabetes and CKD, respectively. Conclusion: Following MI, adults with both diabetes and CKD had a higher risk for recurrent CVD events compared to those with prior CVD without diabetes or CKD.