Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anakinra compared to triamcinolone in the treatment of gout flares. Methods: Patients for whom nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and colchicine were not suitable treatments were enrolled in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study with follow-up for up to 2 years. The study was designed to assess superiority of anakinra (100 or 200 mg/day for 5 days) over triamcinolone (40 mg in a single injection) for the primary end point of changed patient-assessed pain intensity in the most affected joint (scored on a visual analog scale of 0–100) from baseline to 24–72 hours. Secondary outcome measures included: safety, immunogenicity, and patient- and physician-assessed global response. Results: One hundred sixty-five patients were randomized to receive anakinra (n = 110) or triamcinolone (n = 55). The median age was 55 years (range 25–83), 87% were men, the mean disease duration was 8.7 years, and the mean number of self-reported flares during the prior year was 4.5. A total of 301 flares were treated (214 with anakinra; 87 with triamcinolone). Anakinra in both doses and triamcinolone provided clinically meaningful reduction in patient-assessed pain intensity in the first and subsequent flares. For the first flare, the mean decline in pain intensity from baseline to 24–72 hours for total anakinra and triamcinolone was −41.2 and −39.4, respectively (P = 0.688). Anakinra performed better than triamcinolone for most secondary end points. There were no unexpected safety findings. The presence of antidrug antibodies was not associated with adverse events or altered pain reduction. Conclusion: Anakinra was not superior to triamcinolone for the primary end point, but had comparable efficacy in pain reduction and was favored for most secondary end points. Anakinra is an effective option for gout flares when conventional therapy is unsuitable.