Nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds of type I collagen and nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) of varying compositions (wt %) were prepared by electrostatic cospinning. The scaffolds were characterized for structure and morphology by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The scaffolds have a porous nanofibrous morphology with random fibers in the range of 500-700 nm. diameters, depending on the composition. FT-IR and XRD showed the presence of nanoHA in the fibers. The surface roughness and diameter of the fibers increased with the presence of nanoHA in biocomposite fiber as evident from AFM images. Tensile testing and nanoindendation were used for the mechanical characterization. The pure collagen fibrous matrix (without nanoHA) showed a tensile strength of 1.68 ± 0.10 MPa and a modulus of 6.21 ± 0.8 MPa with a strain to failure value of 55 ± 10%. As the nanoHA content in the randomly oriented collagen nanofibers increased to 10%, the ultimate strength increased to 5 ± 0.5 MPa and the modulus increased to 230 ± 30 MPa. The increase in tensile modulus may be attributed to an increase in rigidity over the pure polymer when the hydroxyapatite is added and/or the resulting strong adhesion between the two materials. The vapor phase chemical crosslinking of collagens using glutaraldehyde further increased the mechanical properties as evident from nanoindentation results. A combination of nanofibrous collagen and nanohydroxyapatite that mimics the nanoscale features of the extra cellular matrix could be promising for application as scaffolds for hard tissue regeneration, especially in low or nonload bearing areas. © 2007 American Chemical Society.