PURPOSE Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) frequently develop plexiform neurofibromas (PNs), which can cause significant morbidity. We performed a phase II trial of the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, mirdametinib (PD-0325901), in patients with NF1 and inoperable PNs. The primary objective was response rate based on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis. METHODS Inclusion criteria included age $ 16 years and a PN that was either progressive or causing significant morbidity. First-dose pharmacokinetics were performed. Patients completed patient-reported outcome measures. Patients received mirdametinib by mouth twice a day at 2 mg/m2/dose (maximum dose 5 4 mg twice a day) in a 3-week on/1-week off sequence. Each course was 4 weeks in duration. Evaluations were performed after four courses for the first year and then after every six courses. Patients could receive a maximum of 24 total courses. RESULTS Nineteen patients were enrolled, and all 19 received mirdametinib. The median age was 24 years (range, 16-39 years); the median baseline tumor volume was 363.8 mL (range, 3.9-5,161 mL). Eight of the 19 patients (42%) achieved a partial response of the target PN by course 12, and 10 (53%) had stable disease. One patient (5%) developed progressive disease at course 8. Significant and durable decreases were observed in pain ratings. CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this analysis represents the first characterization of the activity and pharmacokinetics of mirdametinib in patients with NF1 and PNs and is the first published response study for MAPK/ ERK kinase inhibitors in adults with NF1 and PNs. Mirdametinib given at 2 mg/m2/dose (maximum dose, 4 mg) twice daily in a 3-week on/1-week off sequence resulted in a 42% partial response rate with preliminary evidence of reduction in pain.